Biology of Psychopathology and Intervention

Spring 2007 Seminar
February 27 - May 15 (Tuesdays, 8 - 9:30 a.m.)


Purpose

To survey the current state of knowledge about the biology of psychopathology. Primary realms of psychopathology to be covered include depression, anxiety, psychopathology, addiction, and schizophrenia. Both central and peripheral mechanisms will be considered in our attempts to convey what is known about the key biological systems involved in the various forms of psychopathology. Key conceptual issues relating to emotion, diagnosis, and psychopathology will be major themes throughout the course. Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology and treatment will also be addressed.

The seminars are designed to be interactive. One or two readings are required each week. Because there are so many additional readings that are excellent and highly relevant, they have been included below the required readings. Review articles are identified with an asterisk.

Instructors:

Heather C. Abercrombie
Phone: 3-6126
Email: hcabercr@wisc.edu

Jack B. Nitschke
Phone: 3-6083
Email: jnitschke@wisc.edu


Required Readings:

February 27, Class 1: Biological perspectives on psychopathology & treatment: Introduction and overview

Wager, T.D. (2006). Do we need to study the brain to understand the mind? APS Observer, 19.

Class 1 Recommended Readings

March 6, Class 2: Molecular genetics, psychopathology, and sleep disorders (Chiara Cirelli: guest lecturer)

Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T.E. (2006). Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: Joining forces with neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 583-590.

Kendler, K.S. (2006). Reflections on the relationship between psychiatry genetics and psychiatric nosology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1138-1146.

Class 2 Recommended Readings

March 13, Class 3: Key biological systems and methods in emotion: Functional neuroanatomy and LHPA axis 

Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 582-589.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2003). Taming stress. Scientific American, 289, 86-95.

Class 3 Recommended Readings

March 20, Class 4: Anxiety: Functional Neuroanatomy

Cannistraro, P.A. & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Neural circuitry of anxiety: Evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 37, 8-25.

Class 4 Recommended Readings

March 27, Class 5: Anxiety: Mechanisms of treatment

Davis, M., Myers, K.M., Ressler, K.J., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2005). Facilitation of extinction of conditioned fear by D-cycloserine: Implications for psychotherapy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 214-219.

Class 5 Recommended Readings

April 3, Class 6: Depression: Functional neuroanatomy

Davidson, R.J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J.B., & Putnam, K. (2002). Depression: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 545-574.

Class 6 Recommended Readings

April 10, Class 7: Depression: LHPA axis

Gold, P.W., Drevets, W.C., & Charney, D.S. (2002). New insights into the role of cortisol and the glucocorticoid receptor in severe depression. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 381-385.

Class 7 Recommended Readings

April 17, Class 8: Depression: Mechanisms of treatment

Mayberg, H.S. (2007). Defining the neural circuitry of depression: Toward a new nosology with therapeutic implications. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 729-730.

Class 8 Recommended Readings

April 24, Class 9:Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology

Ernst, M., Pine, D.S., & Hardin, M. (2006). Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 36, 299-312.

Class 9 Recommended Readings

May 1, Class 10: Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Michael Peterson: guest lecturer)

Review:
Ross, C.A., Margolis, R.L., Reading, S.A.J., Pletnikov, M., & Coyle, J.T. (2006). Neurobiology of schizophrenia. Neuron, 52, 139-153.

A good overview of "endophenotypes" and schizophrenia, including references to ongoing, large-scale studies:
Braff, D.L., Freedman, R., Schork, N.J., & Gottesman, I.I. (2007). Deconstructing schizophrenia: An overview of the use of endophenotypes in order to understand a complex disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 21-32.

Class 10 Recommended Readings

May 8, Class 11: Biological perspectives on addiction, food intake and related disorders (Brian Baldo: guest lecturer)

Kelley, A.E. & Berridge, K.C. (2002). The neuroscience of natural rewards: Relevance to addictive drugs. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 3306-3311.

Hanlon E.C., Baldo B.A., Sadeghian K., & Kelley A.E. (2004). Increases in food intake or food-seeking behavior induced by GABAergic, opioid, or dopaminergic stimulation of the nucleus accumbens: Is it hunger?. Psychopharmacology, 172, 241-7.

Class 11 Recommended Readings

May 15, Class 12: Biological perspectives on psychopathology: Synthesis and review

Rimmele, U. (2004, October 20). Neuromyths. From Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/53/0,2340,en_2649_14935397_33829685_1_1_1_1,00.html

Miresco, M.J. & Kirmayer, L.J. (2006). The persistence of mind-brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 913-918.

Class 12 Recommended Readings

 

Recommended Readings:

February 27, Class 1: Biological perspectives on psychopathology & treatment: Introduction and overview (recommended readings)

Roffman, J.L., Simon, A.B., Prasad, K.M., Truman, C.J., Morrison, J., & Ernst, C.L. (2006). Neuroscience in psychiatry training: How much do residents need to know? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 919-926.

Class 1 Required Readings

March 6, Class 2: Molecular genetics, psychopathology, and sleep disorders (Chiara Cirelli: guest lecturer) (recommended readings)

Kendler, K.S. & Greenspan, R.J. (2006). The nature of genetic influences on behavior: Lessons from "simpler" organisms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1683-1694.

Hariri, A.R. & Holmes, A. (2006). Genetics of emotional regulation: The role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 182-191.

Class 2 Required Readings

March 13, Class 3: Key biological systems and methods in emotion: Functional neuroanatomy and LHPA axis (recommended readings)

Functional neuroanatomy:

Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C., & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890-909.

Davis, M., & Whalen, P.J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13-34.

Nitschke, J.B., Sarinopoulos, I., Mackiewicz, K.L., Schaefer, H.S., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Functional neuroanatomy of aversion and its anticipation. NeuroImage, 29, 106-116.

Rolls, E.T. (2004) The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain & Cognition, 55, 11-29.

Gusnard, D.A. & Raichle, M.E. (2001). Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 685-94.

Davidson, R.J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196-1214.

Davidson, R.J., & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 11-21.

Hariri, A.R., Mattay, V.S., Tessitore, A.D., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D., Egan, M.F., & Weinberger, D.R. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297, 400-403.

Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon.

LeDoux, J.E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.

LeDoux, J.E. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.

Rolls, E.T. (1999). The brain and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.

LHPA:

Raison, C.L. & Miller, A.H. (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1554-65.

Levine, S. (2000). Influence of psychological variables on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 405, 149-160.

Dickerson, S.S. & Kemeny, M.E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355-391.

Gould, E. & Tanapat, P. (1999). Stress and hippocampal neurogenesis. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1472-1479.

Sapolsky, R.M., Krey, L.C., & McEwen, B.S. (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284-301.

Sapolsky, R.M., Meaney, M.J., & McEwen, B.S. (1985). The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain: III. Negative feedback regulation. Brain Research, 350, 169-173.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 925-935.

McEwen, B.S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171-179.

McEwen, B.S. (2000). Effects of adverse experience for brain structure and function. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 721-731.

Abercrombie, H.C., Kalin, N.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2005). Acute cortisol levels cause heightened arousal ratings of objectively nonarousing stimuli. Emotion, 5, 354-359.

Abercrombie, H.C., Speck, N.S., & Monticelli, R.M. (2006). Endogenous cortisol levels are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196.

Okuda, S., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J.L. (2004). Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 853-858.

Class 3 Required Readings

March 20, Class 4: Anxiety: Functional neuroanatomy (recommended readings)

Davis, M. (1998). Are different parts of the extended amygdala involved in fear versus anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1239-1247.

Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L.S., Dörfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004-1031.

Nitschke, J.B. & Heller, W. (2002). The neuropsychology of anxiety disorders: Affect, cognition, and neural circuitry. In H. D'Haenen, J. A. den Boer, & P. Willner (Eds.), Biological Psychiatry (pp. 975-988). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bakshi, V.P. & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and animal models of anxiety: Gene-environment interactions. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1175-1198.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998). The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 1). Neuroscientist, 4, 35-44.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998) The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 2). Neuroscientist, 4, 122-132.

Rauch, S.L., Savage, C.R., Alpert, N.M., Fischman, A.J., & Jenike, M.A. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: A study of three disorders using positron emission tomography and symptom provocation. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 446-452.

LeDoux, J.E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster. LeDoux, J.E. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.

LeDoux, J. (1998). Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1229-1238.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Rickman, M., & Davidson, R.J. (1998). Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 286-292.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., & Davidson, R.J. (2000). Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in monkeys with patterns of brain activity associated with fearful temperament. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 579-585.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Davidson, R.J., & Kelley, A.E. (2001). The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 2067-2074.

Grillon, C.G. (2002). Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: Aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 958-975.

Class 4 Required Readings

March 27, Class 5: Anxiety: Mechanisms of treatment (recommended readings)

Extinction of fear learning:

Myers, K.M., & Davis, M. (2002). Behavioral and neural analysis of extinction. Neuron, 36, 567-584.

Milad, M.R., & Quirk, G.J. (2002). Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature, 420, 70-74.

D-cycloserine enhancement of exposure therapy:

Guastella, A.J., Dadds, M.R., Lovibond, P.F., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on exposure therapy for spider fear. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 466-471.

Ressler, K.J., Rothbaum, B.O., Tannenbaum, L., Anderson, P., Graap, K., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., & Davis, M. (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1136-1144.

Hofmann, S.G., Meuret, A.E., Smits, J.A.J., Simon, N.M., Pollack, M.H., Eisenmenger, K., Shiekh, M., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 298-304.

Guastella, A.J., Lovibond, P.F., Dadds, M.R., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on extinction and fear conditioning in humans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 663-672.

Hofmann, S.G., Pollack, M.H., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation treatment of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders with D-cycloserine. CNS Drug Reviews, 12, 208-217.

Davis, M., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B.O., & Richardson, R. (2006). Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction: Translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 369-375.

Benzodiazapines interfere with effectiveness of exposure therapy:

Wilhelm, F.H. & Roth, W.T. (1997). Acute and delayed effects of alprazolam on flight phobics during exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 831-841.

Use of adrenergic agents in treatment of PTSD:

Raskind, M.A., Peskind, E.R., Hoff, D.J., Hart, K.L., Holmes, H.A., Warren, D., Shofer, J., O'Connell, J., Taylor, F., Gross, C., Rohde, K., & McFall, M.E. (2006). A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry.

Taylor, F.B., Lowe, K., Thompson, C., McFall, M.M., Peskind, E.R., Kanter, E.D., Allison, N., Williams, J., Martin, P., & Raskind, M.A. (2006). Daytime prazosin reduces psychological distress to trauma specific cues in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 577-581.

Pitman, R.K., Sanders, K.M., Zusman, R.M., Healy, A.R., Cheema, F., Lasko, N.B., Cahill, L., & Orr, S.P. (2002). Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 189-142.

Orr, S.P., Milad, M.R., Metzger, L.J., Lasko, N.B., Gilbertson, M.W., & Pitman, R.K. (2006). Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biological Psychology, 73, 262-271.

Pitman, R.K. & Delahanty, D.L. (2005). Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectrums, 10, 99-106.

SSRIs and the hippocampus in PTSD:

Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S., & Bremner, J.D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 693-702.

Summary: Enhacement of therapeutic learning through integration of medication and psychotherapy:

Kandel, E.R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.

Garakani, A., Mathew, S.J., & Charney, D.S. (2006). Neurobiology of anxiety disorders and implications for treatment. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73, 941-949.

Dębiec, J. & Altemus, M. (2006). Toward a new treatment for traumatic memories. Cerebrum, Sept., 2-11.

Krystal, J.H. (Ed.). (2006). Biological Psychiatry (Vol. 60, Issue 4). New York: Plenum.

Class 5 Required Readings

April 3, Class 6: Depression: Functional neuroanatomy (recommended readings)

Seminowicz, D.A., Mayberg, H.S., McIntosh, A.R., Goldapple, K., Kennedy, S., Segal, Z., & Rafi-Tari, S. (2004). Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling meta-analysis, Neuroimage, 22, 409-418.

Mayberg, H.S. (2003). Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimized treatment. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 193-207.

Drevets, W.C. (2003). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the amygdala in mood disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 98, 420-444.

Drevets, W.C. (2001). Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: Implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 240-249.

Benedetti, F., Bernasconi, A., & Pontiggia, A. (2006). Depression and neurological disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 14-18.

Sheline, Y.I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338-352.

MacQueen, G.M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B.S., MacDonald, K., Amano, S., Joffe, R.T., Nahmias, C., & Young, L.T. (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1000, 1387-1392.

Hasler, G., Drevets, W.C., Manji, H.K., & Charney, D.S. (2004). Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 1765-1781.

Jacobs, B.L. (2004). Depression. The brain finally gets into the act. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 103-106.

Duman, R.S. (2004). Depression: A case of neuronal life and death? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 140-145.

Henn, F.A. & Vollmayr, B. (2004) Neurogenesis and depression: Etiology or epiphenomenon? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 146-150.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2004). Is impaired neurogenesis relevant to the affective symptoms of depression? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 137-139.

Heller, W. & Nitschke, J.B. (1997). Regional brain activity in emotion: A framework for understanding cognition in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 637-661.

Heller, W. & Nitschke, J.B. (1998). The puzzle of the regional brain activity in depression and anxiety: The importance of subtypes and comorbidity. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 421-447.

Rajkowska, G. (2000). Postmortem studies in mood disorders indicate altered numbers on neurons and glial cells. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 766-777.

Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Taylor, A., Crag, I.W., Harrington, H., McClay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene, Science, 301, 386-389.

Carey, B. (2005, October 18). Can brain scans see depression? [Electronic version]. The New York Times, Section F, p. 1.

Class 6 Required Readings

April 10, Class 7: Depression: LHPA axis (recommended readings)

HPA dysregulation in depression:

Sapolsky, R.M. (2003). Taming stress. Scientific American, 289, 86-95.

Parker, K.J., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2003). Neuroendocrine aspects of hypercortisolism in depression. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 60-66.

Cortisol negative feedback deficit:

Young, E.A., Haskett, R.F., Murphy-Weinberg, V., Watson, S.J., & Akil, H. (1991). Loss of glucocorticoid fast feedback in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 693-699.

Ising, M., Kunzel, H.E., Binder, E.B., Nickel, T., Modell, S., & Holsboer, F. (2005). The combined dexamethasone/CRH test as a potential surrogate marker in depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 29, 1085-1093.

Glucocorticoid receptor insensitivity in depression:

The following article is highly recommended:
Raison, C.L. & Miller, A.H. (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1554-65.

Pariante, C.M. (2003). Depression, stress and the adrenal axis. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 15, 811-812.

Pariante, C.M., & Miller, A.H. (2002). Glucocorticoid receptors in major depression: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 391-404.

Young, E.A., Lopez, J.F., Murphy-Weinberg, V., Watson, S. J., & Akil, H. (2003). Mineralocorticoid receptor function in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 24-28.

Enhanced cortisol positive feedback:

Reul, J., & Holsboer, F. (2002). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2 anxiety and depression. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 2, 23-33.

Drevets, W.C., Price, J.L., Bardgett, M.E., Reich, T., Todd, R.D., & Raichle, M.E. (2002). Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 71, 431-447.

Early environmental manipulations cause life-long HPA changes:

Weaver, I.C.G., Diorio, J., Seckl, J.R., Szyf, M., & Meaney, M.J. (2004). Early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Characterization of intracellular mediators and potential genomic target sites. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1024, 182-212.

Hippocampal volume reductions:

Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: A primer on neuron death. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 755-765.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2002). Chickens, eggs, and hippocampal atrophy. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1111-1113.

MacQueen, G.M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B.S., MacDonald, K., Amano, S., Joffe, R.T., Nahmias, C., & Young, L.T. (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1000, 1387-1392.

Sheline, Y.I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338-352.

Rusch, B.D., Abercrombie, H.C., Oakes, T.R., Schaefer, S.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2001). Hippocampal morphometry in depressed patients and control subjects: Relations to anxiety symptoms. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 960-964.

Gilbertson, M.W., Shenton, N.E., Cizewski, A., Kasai, K., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S.P., & Pitman, R.K. (2002). Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1242-1247.

---------------------------------

Akil, H. (2005). Stressed and depressed. Nature Medicine, 11, 116-118.

Irwin, M.R. & Miller, A.H. (2007). Depressive disorders and immunity: 20 years of progress and discovery. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 374-383.

Class 7 Required Readings

April 17, Class 8: Depression: Mechanisms of treatment (recommended readings)

Effects of antidepressant medications on HPA, neurogenesis, & hippocampal volume:

Pariante, C.M., Thomas, S.A., Lovestone, S., Makoff, A., & Kerwin, R.W. (2004). Do antidepressants regulate how cortisol affects the brain? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 423-447.

Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S., & Bremner, J.D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 693-702.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2004). Is impaired neurogenesis relevant to the affective symptoms of depression? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 137-139.

Duman, R.S. (2004). Depression: A case of neuronal life and death? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 140-145.

Glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid treatment of depression:

Reus, V.I. & Wolkowitz, O.M. (2001). Antiglucocorticoid drugs in the treatment of depression. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 10, 1789-1796.

Wolkowitz, O.M. & Reus, V.I. (2003). Neurotransmitters, neurosteroids, and neurotrophins: New models of the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 4, 98-102.

Belanoff, J.K., Rothschild, A.J., Cassidy, F., DeBattista, C., Baulieu E.-E., Schold, C., & Schatzberg A.F. (2002). An open label trial of C-1073 (mifepristone) for psychotic major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 386-392.

Holsboer, F. (2003). High-quality antidepressant discovery by understanding stress hormone physiology. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1007, 394-404.

Prediction of treatment response using biological data:

Young, E.A., Altemus, M., Lopez, J.F., Kocsis, J.H., Schatzberg, A.F., deBattista, C., & Zubieta, J.-K. (2004). HPA axis activation in major depression and response to fluoxetine: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 1198-1204.

Siegle, G.J., Carter, C.S., & Thase, M.E. (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735-738.

Davidson, R.J., Irwin, W., Anderle, M.J., & Kalin, N.H. (2003). The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. American Journal of Psychiatry,160, 64-75.

Pizzagalli, D., Pascual-Marqui, R.D., Nitschke, J.B., Oakes, T.R., Larson, C.L., Abercrombie, H.C., Schaefer, S.M., Koger, J.V., Benca, R.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2001). Anterior cingulate activity as a predictor of degree of treatment response in major depression: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 405-415.

Mayberg, H.S., Brannan, S.K., Mahurin, R.K., Jerabek, P.A., Brickman, J.S., Tekell, J.L., Silva, J.A., McGinnis, S., Glass, T.G., Martin, C.C., & Fox, P.T. (1997). Cingulate function in depression: A potential predictor of treatment response. NeuroReport, 8, 1057-1061.

Electromagnetic brain stimulation techniques (rTMS, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, ECT):

Mayberg, H.S., Lozano, A.M., Voon, V., McNeely, H.E., Seminowicz, D., Hamani, C., Schwalb, J.M., & Kennedy, S.H. (2005). Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron, 45, 651-660.

Nemeroff, C.B., Mayberg, H.S., Krahl, S.E., McNamara, J., Frazer, A., Henry, T.R., George, M.S., Charney, D.S., & Brannan, S.K. (2006). VNS therapy in treatment-resistant depression: Clinical evidence and putative neurobiological mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 1345-1355.

George, M.S. (2003). Stimulating the brain. Scientific American, 289, 66-73.

George, M.S., Lisanby, S.H., & Sackeim, H.A. (1999). Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Applications in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 300-311.

Klein, E., Kreinin, I., Chistyakov, A., Koren, D., Mecz, L., Marmur, S., Ben-Shachar, D., & Feinsod, M. (1999). Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: A double-blind controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 315-320.

Biological aspects of emotion regulation:

Urry, H.L., van Reekum, C.M., Johnstone, T., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Schaefer, H.S., Jackson, C.A., Frye, C.J., Greischar, L.L., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4415-4425.

Ochsner, K.N. & Gross, J.J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 242-249.Ochsner, K., Bunge, S.A., Gross, J.J., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1215-1229.

Gross, J.J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281-291.

Jackson, D.C., Malmstadt, J.R., Larson, C.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2000). Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology, 37, 515-522.

Schaefer, S.M., Jackson, D.C., Davidson, R.J Aguirre, G.K., Kimberg, D.Y., & Thompson-Schill, S.L. (2002). Modulation of amygdalar activity by the conscious regulation of negative emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 913-921.

Brown, L.L., Tomarken, A.J., Orth, D.N., Loosen, P.T., Kalin, N.H., & Davidson, R.J. (1996). Individual differences in repressive-defensiveness predict basal salivary cortisol levels. Journal of Personality of Social Psychology, 70, 362-371.

The functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy:

Roffman, J.L., Marci, C.D., Glick, D.M., Dougherty, D.D., & Rauch, S.L. (2005). Neuroimaging and the functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1385-1398.

Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P., Kennedy, S., & Mayberg, H. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 34-41.

Brody, A.L., Saxena, S., Stoessel, P., Gillies, L.A., Fairbanks, L.A., Alborzian, S., Phelps, N.E., Huang, S., Wu, H., Ho, M.L., Ho, M.K., Au, S.C., Maidment, K., & Baxter, L.R. (2001). Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: Preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 159, 728-737.

Combination medication & psychotherapy treatment:

Keller, M.B., McCullough, J.P., Klein, D.N., Arnow, B., Dunner, D.L., Gelenberg, A.J., Markowitz, J.C., Nemeroff, C.B., Russell, J.M., Thase, M.E., Trivedi, M.H., & Zajecka, J. (2000). A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342(20), 1462-1470.

Arnow, B.A. & Constantino, M.J. (2003). Effectiveness of psychotherapy and combination treatment for chronic depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 893-905.

Molecular psychiatry:

Kim, H., Lim, S.-W., Kim, S., Kim, J.-W., Chang, Y.H., Carroll, B.J., & Kim, D.K. (2006). Monoamine transporter gene polymorphisms and antidepressant response in Koreans with late-life depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 1609-1618.

An often cited paper on guidelines for treatment research in Psychiatry:
Kandel, E.R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.

Class 8 Required Readings

April 24, Class 9:Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology (recommended readings)

Forbes, E.E. & Dahl, R.E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17, 827-850.

Thomas, K.M., Drevets, W.C., Dahl, R.E., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C.H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P.J., & Casey, B.J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1057-1063.

Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Doughan, B., & Slattery, M.J. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443-466.

Schwartz, C.E., Wright, C.I., Shin, L.M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants "grown up": Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 1952-1953.

Buss, K.A., Malmstadt Schumacher, J.R., Dolski, I., Kalin, N.H., Goldsmith, H.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 11-20.

Scheres, A., Milham, M.P., Knutson, B., & Castellanos, F.X. (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720-724.

Krause, K., Dresel, S.H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 27, 605-613.

Wilens, T.E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T.J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113-131.

Mostofsky, S.H., Cooper, K.L., Kates, W.R., Denckla, M.B., & Kaufman, W.E. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785-794.

Dalton, K.M., Nacewicz, B.M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H.S., Gernsbacher, M.A., Goldsmith, H.H., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519-526.

Rutter, M. (2005). Aetiology of autism: Findings and questions. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 231-238.

Coe, C.L., Kramer, M., Czeh, B., Gould, E., Reeves, A.J., Kirschbaum, C., & Fuchs, E. (2003). Prenatal stress diminishes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of juvenile rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1025-1034.

DiPietro, J.A., Novak, M.F.S.X., Costigan, K.A., Atella, L.D., Reusing, S.P. (2006). Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy in relation to child development at age two. Child Development, 77, 573–587.

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2004). Prospective investigation of stress inoculation in young monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 933-941.

Fries, A.B., Ziegler, T.E., Kurian, J.R., Jacoris, S., & Pollak, S.D. (2005). Early experience in humans is associated with changes in neuropeptides critical for regulating social behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 17237-17240.

Pollak, S.D. & Kistler, D.J. (2002). Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9072-9076.

Pollak, S.D. & Sinha, P. (2002). Effects of early experience in children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 38, 784-791.

McClure, E.B., Pope, K., Hoberman, A.J., Pine, D.S., & Leibenluft, E. (2003). Facial expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1172-1174.

Class 9 Required Readings

May 1, Class 10: Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Michael Peterson: guest lecturer) (recommended readings)

Good, short editorial describing the difficulty of dissecting the molecular underpinnings of schizophrenia:
Friedman, J.I. & Davis, K.L. (2006). Special Issue: Molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 527-529.

Theoretical models of schizohrenia incorporating recent findings (genetic, imaging, neurotransmitter, etc):
Stephan, K.E., Baldeweg, T., & Friston, K.J. (2006). Synaptic plasticity and dysconnection in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 929-939.

Recent journal issues with a focus on the neurobiology of schizophrenia:

Focus on the use of endophenotypes in schizophrenia, and recent findings:
Schizophrenia Bulletin (2007) v. 33(1), pp. 19-104

Reviews of neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia (dopamine, glutamate, gaba, serotonin, etc.):
International Review of Neurobiology (2007) v. 78, pp.1-422

Class 10 Required Readings

May 8, Class 11: Biological perspectives on addiction, food intake and related disorders (Brian Baldo: guest lecturer) (recommended readings)

Hyman, S.E., Malenka, R.C., & Nestler, E.J. (2006). Neural mechanisms of addiction: The role of reward-related learning and memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 29,565-598.

Koob, G.F., Ahmed, S.H., Boutrel, B., Chen S.A., Kenny, P.J., Markou, A., O'Dell, L.E., Parsons, L.H., & Sanna, P.P. (2003). Neurobiological mechanisms in the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 739-749.

Koob, G.F. & Le Moal, M. (2001). Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24, 97-129.

Goldstein R.Z. & Volkow N.D. (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1642-52.

Klein D.A. & Walsh B.T. (2004). Eating disorders: clinical features and pathophysiology. Physiology & Behavior, 81, 359-74.

Kelley A.E. (2004). Ventral striatal control of appetitive motivation: role in ingestive behavior and reward-related learning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 765-76.

Class 11 Required Readings

May 15, Class 12: Biological perspectives on psychopathology: Synthesis and review

Miller, G.A. & Keller, J. (2000). Psychology and neuroscience: Making peace. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 212-215.

Kosslyn, S.M., Cacioppo, J.T., Davidson, R.J., Hugdahl, K., Lovallo, W.R., Spiegel, D., & Rose, R. (2002). Bridging psychology and biology: The analysis of individuals in groups. American Psychologist, 57, 341-351.

Davidson, R.J. (1997). The proper role of psychology in psychopathology research: Four noble truths. Psychopathology Research, 8, 1-9.

Miller, G.A. (1996). How we think about cognition, emotion, and biology in psychopathology. Psychophysiology, 33, 615-628.

Hyman, S.E. (2003). Diagnosing disorders. Scientific American, 289, 96-103.

Weiss, P.A. (1967). One plus one does not equal two. In: G.C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, & F.O. Schmitt (Eds.), The Neurosciences: A Study Program (pp. 801-821). New York: Rockefeller University Press.

Gage, F.H. (2003). Brain, repair yourself. Scientific American, 289, 46-53.Holloway, M. (2003). The mutable brain. Scientific American, 289, 78-85.

Class 12 Required Readings


Other Readings:

Chang, K. (2006, April 7). Study, in a first, explains evolution's molecular advance. [Electronic version]. The New York Times, Section A, p. 21.

Bridgham, J.T., Carroll, S.M., & Thornton, J.W. (2006). Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science, 312, 97-101.


Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Fall 2003

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Fall 2004

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Spring 2006

 

Reading Assignments
Dates:

February 27, Class 1: Biological perspectives on psychopathology & treatment: Introduction and overview

March 6, Class 2: Molecular genetics, psychopathology, and sleep disorders (Chiara Cirelli: guest lecturer)

March 13, Class 3: Key biological systems and methods in emotion: Functional neuroanatomy and LHPA axis

March 20, Class 4: Anxiety: Functional neuroanatomy

March 27, Class 5: Anxiety: Mechanisms of treatment

April 3, Class 6: Depression: Functional neuroanatomy

April 10, Class 7: Depression: LHPA axis

April 17, Class 8: Depression: Mechanisms of treatment

April 24, Class 9: Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology

May 1, Class 10: Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Michael Peterson: guest lecturer)

May 8, Class 11: Biological perspectives on addiction, food intake and related disorders (Brian Baldo: guest lecturer)

May 15, Class 12: Biological perspectives on psychopathology & treatment: Synthesis and review


2003
Questions, Comments, or Accessibility Issues: Email the Webmaster
Last Updated: 2/22/13