To survey the current state of knowledge about the biology of psychopathology. Primary realms of psychopathology to be covered include depression, anxiety, psychopathology, addiction, and schizophrenia. Both central and peripheral mechanisms will be considered in our attempts to convey what is known about the key biological systems involved int he various forms of psychopathology. Key conceptual issues relating to emotion, diagnosis, and psychopathology will be major themes throughout the course. Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology and treatment will also be addressed
The seminars are designed to be interactive. Two readings are required each week. Because there are so many additional readings that are excellent and highly relevant, they have been included below the two required readings, which are asterisked. We have listed the additional readings in order of importance and relevance.
Heather C. Abercrombie
Jack B. Nitschke
*Miller, G. A. & Keller, J. (2000). Psychology and neuroscience: Making peace. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 212-215.
Davidson, R. J. (1997). The proper role of psychology in psychopathology research: Four noble truths. Psychopathology Research, 8, 1-9.
Miller, G. A. (1996). How we think about cognition, emotion, and biology in psychopathology. Psychophysiology, 33, 615-628.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Tassinary, L. G. (1990). Psychophysiology and psychophysiological inference. In J. T. Cacioppo, and L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 3-33). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hyman, S.E. (2003). Diagnosing disorders. Scientific American, 289, 96-103.
Gage, F. H. (2003). Brain, repair yourself. Scientific American, 289, 46-53.
Holloway, M. (2003). The mutable brain. Scientific American, 289, 78-85.October 7, Class 2: Key biological systems in emotion: Functional neuroanatomy and LHPA axis
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon.
LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Rolls, E. T. (1999). The brain and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rolls, E. T. (1999). The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Neurocase: Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry, and Behavioral Neurology, 5, 301-312.
Davis, M., & Whalen, P. J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13-34.
Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196-1214.
Davidson, R. J., & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 11-21.
Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A.D., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D., Egan, M. F., & Weinberger, D. R. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297, 4000-403.LHPA
*McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171-179.
Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C., & McEwen, B. S. (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284-301.
Sapolsky, R.M., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (1985). The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain: III. Negative feedback regulation. Brain Research, 350, 169-173.
Levine, S. (2000). Influence of Psychological variables on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 405, 149-160.
Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (in press). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin.
Gould, E., & Tanapat, P. (1999). Stress and hippocampal neurogenesis. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1472-1479.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 925-935.
McEwen, B. S. (2000). Effects of adverse experience for brain structure and function. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 721-731.October 14, Class 3: Emotion regulation and dysregulation
*Ochsner, K., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002>. Rethinking feelings: An FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1215-1229.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281-291.
Jackson, D.C., Malmstadt, J. R., Larson, C. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2000). Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology, 37, 515-522.
Schaefer, S. M., Jackson, D.C., Davidson, R.J Aguirre, G. K., Kimberg, D. Y., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2002). Modulation of amygdalar activity by the conscious regulation of negative emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 913-921.
Milad, M. R., & Quirk, G. J. (2002). Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature, 420, 70-74.
Brown, L. L., Tomarken, A. J., Orth, D. N., Loosen, P. T., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (1996). Individual differences in repressive-defensiveness predict basal salivary cortisol levels. Journal of Personality of Social Psychology, 70, 362-371.October 21, Class 4: Functional neuroanatomy of depression
*Davidson, R. J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J. B., & Butnam, K. (2002). Depression: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 545-574.
*Sheline, Y. I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338-352.
Drevets, W. C. (2003). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the amygdala in mood disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 98, 420-444.
Drevets, W. C. (2001). Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: Implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 240-249.
Mayberg, H. S. (2003). Modulating dysfunctional Limbic-cortical circuits in depression: towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimized treatment. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 193-207.
MacQueen, G. M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B. S., MacDonald. K., Amano, S., Joffe, R. T., Nahmias, C., & young, L. T. (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1000, 1387-1392.
Davidson, R. J., Abercombie, H., Nitschke, J. B., & Putnam, K. (1999). Regional brain function, emotion and disorders of emotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 228-234.
Rajkowska, G. (2000). Postmortem studies in mood disorders indicate altered numbers on neurons and glial cells. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 766-777.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Crag, I. W., Harrington, H., McClay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene, Science, 301, 386-389.October 28, Class 5: LHPA axis in depression and PTSD
*Young, E. A., Haskett, R. F., Murphy-Weinberg, V., Watson, S. J., & Akil, H. (1991). Loss of glucocorticoid fast feedback in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 693-699.
*Pariante, C. M., & Miller, A. H. (2002). Glucocorticoid receptors in major depression: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 391-404.
Gilbertson, M. W., Shenton, N.E., Cizewski, A., Kasai, K., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S. P., & Pitman, R. K. (2002). Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1242-1247.
Meaney, M. J. (2001). Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 1161-1192.
Sapolsky, R.M. (2003). Taming stress. Scientific American, 289, 86-95.
Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: A primer on neuron death. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 755-765.
Drevets, W. C., Price, J. L., Bardgett, M. E., Reich, T., Todd, R. D., & Raichle, M. E. (2002). Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels.Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 71, 431-447.
Reul, J., & Holsboer, F. (2002). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2 anxiety and depression. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 2, 23-33.November 4, Class 6: Basic and clinical neuroscience of fear and anxiety
*Davis, M. (1998). Are different parts of the extended amygdala involved in fear versus anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1239-1247.
*Nitschke, J. B., & Heller, W. (2002). The neuropsychology of anxiety disorders: Affect, cognition, and neural circuitry. In H. D'Haenen, J. A. den Boer, & P. Willner (Eds.), Biological Psychiatry (pp. 975-988). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Charney, D. S., Grillon, C. G., & Bremner, J. D. (1998). The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 1). Neuroscientist, 4, 35-44.
Charney, D. S., Grillon, C. G., & Bremner, J. D. (1998) The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 2). Neuroscientist, 4, 122-132.
Rauch, S. L., Savage, C. R., Alpert, N. M., Fischman, A. J., & Jenike, M. A. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: A study of three disorders using positron emission tomography and symptom provocation. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 446-452.
LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.
LeDoux, J. (1998). Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1229-1238.
Kalin, N. H., Shelton, S.E., Rickman, M., & Davidson, R. J. (1998). Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 286-292.
Kalin, N. H., Shelton, S.E., & Davidson, R. J. (2000). Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in monkeys with patterns of brain activity associated with fearful temperament. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 579-585.
Kalin, N. H., Shelton, S.E., davidson, R. J., & Kelley, A. E. (2001). The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 2067-2074.
Hiatt, K. D. & Newman, J. P. (2003). Interhemispheric integration: A proximal mechanism for psychopathy. Manuscript in preparation.
Blair, R. J. R. (2003). Understanding the development of the psychopathic individual: An affective cognitive neuroscience approach. To appear in D. Barch (Ed.) Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience of Psychopathology,, Oxford University Press.
Ishikawa, S. S. & Raine, A. (2003). Contributions of Prefrontal Lobe Subregions to Antisocial and Aggressive Behavior. To appear in D. Barch (Ed.) Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience of Psychopathology, Oxford University Press.
Kelley AE, Berridge KC (2002). The neuroscience of natural rewards: Relevance to addictive drugs. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 3306-3311.
*Krause, K., Dresel, S. H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 27, 605-613.
*Coe, C. L., Kramer, M., Czeh, B., Gould, E., Reeves, A. J., Kirschbaum, C. et al. (2003). Prenatal stress diminishes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of juvenile rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1025-1034.
Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Doughan, B., & Slattery, M. J. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443-466.
Buss, K. A., Malmstadt Schumacher, J. R., Dolski, I., Kalin, N. H., Goldsmith, H. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 11-20.
Schwartz, C. E., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S. L. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants "grown up": Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 1952-1953.
Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113-131.
Mostofsky, S. H., Cooper, K. L., Kates, W. R., Denckla, M. B., & Kaufman, W. E. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785-794.
Thomas, K. M., Drevets, W. C., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C. H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P. J., & Casey, B. J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1057-1063.
McClure, E. B., Pope, K., Hoberman, A. J., Pine, D. S., & Leibenluft, E. (2003). Facial expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1172-1174.
Pollak, S. D., & Kistler, D. J. (2002). Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9072-9076.
Pollak, S. D., & Sinha, P. (2002). Effects of early experience in children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 38, 784-791.
*Callicot, J. H. (2003). An expanded role for functional neuroimaging in schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 256-260.
*Sawa, A. & Snyder, S. H. (2002). Schizophrenia: Diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science, 26, 692-695.
Kuperberg, G. & Heckers, S. (2000). Schizophrenia and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10, 205-210.December 9, Class 11: Biology and the treatment of psychopathology
*Kandel, E. R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.
*Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S. M., Charney, D. S., & Bremner, J. D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 693-702.
Brody, A. L., Saxena, S., Stoessel, P., Gillies, L. A., Fairbanks, L. A., Alborzian, S., Phelps, N.E., Huang, S., Wu, H., Ho, M. L., Ho, M. K., Au, S. C., Maidment, K., & Baxter, L. R. (2001)., Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: Preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 159, 728-737.
Mayberg, H. S., Silva, J. A., Brannan, S. K., Tekell, J. L., Mahurin, R. K., McGinnis, S., & Jarabek, P. A. (2002). The functional neuroanatomy of the placebo effect. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 728-737.
Klein, E., Kreinin, I., Chistyakov, A., Koren, D., Mecz, L., Marmur, S., Ben-Shachar, D., & Feinsod, M. (1999). Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: A double-blind controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 315-320.
George, M. S., Lisanby, S. H., & Sackeim, H. A. (1999). Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Applications in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 300-311.
George, M. (2003). Stimulating the brain. Scientific American, 289, 66-73.
Kandel, E. R. (1999). Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: A new intellectual frame work for psychiatry revisited. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 505-524.
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