Biology of Psychopathology and Intervention

Spring 2009 Seminar
February 19 - April 9 (Thursdays, 9:00-10:00 a.m.)


Purpose

To survey the current state of knowledge about the biology of psychopathology with an emphasis on affective neuroscience. Primary realms of psychopathology to be covered include depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Both central and peripheral mechanisms will be covered. Biological perspectives on developmental psychopathology and treatment will also be addressed.

The format of the classes includes lecture material with interactive discussion encouraged.

Requirements for clinical psychology interns and psychiatry residents

One or two readings are listed as required for each week. One or two optional readings from the listed recommended articles are suggested for each week.

Requirements for graduate students registered for Psych 711

One or two readings are listed as required for each week. In addition, two additional readings of your choice from the listed recommended articles are required for each week. Reaction papers on these readings that are no longer than 1 page are due Wednesday at noon prior to each class. Email reaction papers to both instructors.

A final paper will be due on April 9 (Class 8) after the final class. Topics must be approved by one of the instructors by March 26 (Class 6).

Instructors:

Heather C. Abercrombie
Phone: 263-6126
Email: hcabercr@wisc.edu

Jack B. Nitschke
Phone: 263-6083
Email: jnitschke@wisc.edu


Introductory Material:

Human Brain Coloring Book by Diamond, Scheibel, & Elson
Especially recommended:  Plates 1-1 to 2-8; Plates 5-29 to 5-32; Plates 5-35 to 5-48

The Physiology Coloring Book (2nd Edition) by Kapit, Macey, & Meisami
Especially recommended: Section on Endocrine System

Raichle, M.E. (1994). Visualizing the mind: Strategies of cognitive science and techniques of modern brain imaging open a window to the neural systems responsible for thought. Scientific American, 270, 58-64.


Required Readings:

February 19, Class 1: Psychopathology, adaptation to the environment, and neuroplasticity

Wager, T.D. (2006). Do we need to study the brain to understand the mind? APS Observer, 19.

Class 1 Recommended Readings

February 26, Class 2: Functional neuroanatomy: Depression and anxiety  

Krishnan, V. & Nestler, E.J. (2008). The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455, 894-902.

Miller, G. (2008). Growing pains for fMRI. Science, 320,1412-1414.

Cannistraro, P.A. & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Neural circuitry of anxiety: Evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 37, 8-25.

Class 2 Recommended Readings

March 5, Class 3: HPA axis and neuroplasticity: Depression and anxiety

Abercrombie, H.C. (2009). Cortisol: Impairment vs. adaptation. In S.J. Lopez (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. (pp. 239-243). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2003). Taming stress. Scientific American, 289, 86-95.

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Class 3 Recommended Readings

March 12, Class 4: Current topics in treatment of depression and anxiety

Norberg, M.M., Krystal, J.H., & Tolin, D.F. (2008). A meta-analysis of d-cycloserine and the facilitation of fear extinction and exposure therapy. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 1118-1126.

Francis, D.D., Diorio, J., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (2002). Environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal separation on stress reactivity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 7840-7843.

Class 4 Recommended Readings

March 19, Class 5: Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Giulio Tononi and Fabio Ferrarelli: guest lecturers)

Ferrarelli, F., Huber, R., Peterson, M.J., Massimini, M., Murphy, M., Riedner, B.A., Watson, A., Bria, P., & Tononi, G. (2007). Reduced sleep spindle activity in schizophrenia patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 483-492.

Class 5 Recommended Readings

March 26, Class 6: Molecular psychiatry (Jerry Yin: guest lecturer)

Higgins, E.S. (2008). The new genetics of mental illness. Scientific American Mind, 19, 40-47.

Kendler, K.S. & Greenspan, R.J. (2006). The nature of genetic influences on behavior: Lessons from "simpler" organisms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1683-1694.

Class 6 Recommended Readings

April 2 , Class 7: Developmental psychopathology

Miller, A. (2007). Social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression. Brain and Cognition, 65, 47-68.

Class 7 Recommended Readings

April 9, Class 8: Synthesis and review

Class 8 Recommended Readings

 

Recommended Readings:

February 19, Class 1: Psychopathology, adaptation to the environment, and neuroplasticity (recommended readings)

Levels of analysis and nondualistic viewpoint:

Marshall, P.J. (2009). Relating psychology and neuroscience: Taking up the challenges. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 113-125.

Weiss, P.A. (1967). One plus one does not equal two. In: G.C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk, & F.O. Schmitt (Eds.), The Neurosciences: A Study Program (pp. 801-821). New York: Rockefeller University Press.

Miller, G.A. & Keller, J. (2000). Psychology and neuroscience: Making peace. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 212-215.

Kosslyn, S.M., Cacioppo, J.T., Davidson, R.J., Hugdahl, K., Lovallo, W.R., Spiegel, D., & Rose, R. (2002). Bridging psychology and biology: The analysis of individuals in groups. American Psychologist, 57, 341-351.

Davidson, R.J. (1997). The proper role of psychology in psychopathology research: Four noble truths. Psychopathology Research, 8, 1-9.

Miller, G.A. (1996). How we think about cognition, emotion, and biology in psychopathology. Psychophysiology, 33, 615-628.

Examples of reductionistic viewpoint:

Hyman, S.E. (2003). Diagnosing disorders. Scientific American, 289, 96-103.

Hyman, S.E. (2007). Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 725-732.

Neuroplasticity (i.e., neural adaptation to the environment):

Citri, A. & Malenka, R.C. (2008). Synaptic plasticity: Multiple forms, functions, and mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 18-41.

Holloway, M. (2003). The mutable brain. Scientific American, 289, 78-85.

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Stein, D.J., Daniels, W.M.U., Savitz, J., & Harvey, B.H. (2008). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: The neurotrophin hypothesis of psychopathology. CNS Spectrums, 13, 945-949.

Kapczinski, F., Frey, B.N., Kauer-Sant'Anna, M., Grassi-Oliveira, R. (2008). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuroplasticity in bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurother., 8, 1101-1113.

Conner, A.C., Kissling, C., Hodges, E., Hünnerkopf, R., Clement, R.M., Dudley, E., Freitag, C.M., Rösler, M., Retz, W., & Thome, J. (2008). Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 147B, 1476-1480.

Daskalakis, Z.J., Christensen, B.K., Fitzgerald, P.B., & Chen, R. (2008). Dysfunctional neural plasticity in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 378-385.

van Praag, H. (2008). Neurogenesis and exercise: Past and future directions. Neuromolecular Med, 10, 128-140.

Ho, B.-C., Andreasen, N.C., Dawson, J.D., & Wassink, T.H. (2007). Association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism and progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1890-1899.

Bremner, J.D., Elzinga, B., Schmahl, C. & Vermetten, E. (2008). Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder. Progress Brain Res, 167, 171-186.

Grosjean, B. & Tsai, G.E. (2007). NMDA neurotransmission as a critical mediator of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 32, 103-115.

Class 1 Required Readings

February 26, Class 2: Functional neuroanatomy: Depression and anxiety (recommended readings)

Functional neuroanatomy:

Begley, S. (2009, February 9). Of voodoo and the brain: Patterns of neural activity and thoughts or feelings are not as tightly linked as scientists have claimed. Newsweek.

Dalgleish, T. (2004). The emotional brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 582-589.

Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C., & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890-909.

Davis, M., & Whalen, P.J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13-34.

Nitschke, J.B., Sarinopoulos, I., Mackiewicz, K.L., Schaefer, H.S., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Functional neuroanatomy of aversion and its anticipation. NeuroImage, 29, 106-116.

Rolls, E.T. (2004) The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain & Cognition, 55, 11-29.

Gusnard, D.A. & Raichle, M.E. (2001). Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 685-94.

Davidson, R.J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196-1214.

Davidson, R.J., & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 11-21.

Damasio, A.R. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt.

Damasio, A.R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon.

LeDoux, J.E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.

LeDoux, J.E. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.

Rolls, E.T. (1999). The brain and emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Neuroanatomy of depression:

Davidson, R.J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J.B., & Putnam, K. (2002). Depression: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 545-574.

Seminowicz, D.A., Mayberg, H.S., McIntosh, A.R., Goldapple, K., Kennedy, S., Segal, Z., & Rafi-Tari, S. (2004). Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling meta-analysis, Neuroimage, 22, 409-418.

Mayberg, H.S. (2003). Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: Towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimized treatment. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 193-207.

Drevets, W.C. (2003). Neuroimaging abnormalities in the amygdala in mood disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 98, 420-444.

Drevets, W.C. (2001). Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of depression: Implications for the cognitive-emotional features of mood disorders. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 240-249.

Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C.M., Urry, H.L., Kalin, N.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2007). Failure to regulate: Counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 8877-8884.

Benedetti, F., Bernasconi, A., & Pontiggia, A. (2006). Depression and neurological disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 14-18.

Sheline, Y.I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338-352.

MacQueen, G.M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B.S., MacDonald, K., Amano, S., Joffe, R.T., Nahmias, C., & Young, L.T. (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1000, 1387-1392.

Hasler, G., Drevets, W.C., Manji, H.K., & Charney, D.S. (2004). Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 1765-1781.

Jacobs, B.L. (2004). Depression. The brain finally gets into the act. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 103-106.

Duman, R.S. (2004). Depression: A case of neuronal life and death? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 140-145.

Henn, F.A. & Vollmayr, B. (2004) Neurogenesis and depression: Etiology or epiphenomenon? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 146-150.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2004). Is impaired neurogenesis relevant to the affective symptoms of depression? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 137-139.

Heller, W. & Nitschke, J.B. (1997). Regional brain activity in emotion: A framework for understanding cognition in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 637-661.

Heller, W. & Nitschke, J.B. (1998). The puzzle of the regional brain activity in depression and anxiety: The importance of subtypes and comorbidity. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 421-447.

Rajkowska, G. (2000). Postmortem studies in mood disorders indicate altered numbers on neurons and glial cells. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 766-777.

Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Taylor, A., Crag, I.W., Harrington, H., McClay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene, Science, 301, 386-389.

Carey, B. (2005, October 18). Can brain scans see depression? [Electronic version]. The New York Times, Section F, p. 1.

Neuroanatomy of anxiety:

Goldin, P.R., Manber, T., Hakimi, S., Canli, T., & Gross, J.J. (2009). Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: Emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation during social and physical threat. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 170-180.

Davis, M. (1998). Are different parts of the extended amygdala involved in fear versus anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1239-1247.

Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L.S., Dörfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004-1031.

Nitschke, J.B., & Heller, W. (2005). Distinguishing neural substrates of heterogeneity among anxiety disorders. International Review of Neurobiology, 67, 1-42.

Bakshi, V.P. & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and animal models of anxiety: Gene-environment interactions. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1175-1198.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998). The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 1). Neuroscientist, 4, 35-44.

Charney, D.S., Grillon, C.G., & Bremner, J.D. (1998) The neurobiological basis of anxiety and fear: Circuits, mechanisms, and neurochemical interactions (Part 2). Neuroscientist, 4, 122-132.

Rauch, S.L., Savage, C.R., Alpert, N.M., Fischman, A.J., & Jenike, M.A. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: A study of three disorders using positron emission tomography and symptom provocation. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 446-452.

LeDoux, J. (1998). Fear and the brain: Where have we been, and where are we going? Biological Psychiatry, 44, 1229-1238.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Rickman, M., & Davidson, R.J. (1998). Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 286-292.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., & Davidson, R.J. (2000). Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in monkeys with patterns of brain activity associated with fearful temperament. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 579-585.

Kalin, N.H., Shelton, S.E., Davidson, R.J., & Kelley, A.E. (2001). The primate amygdala mediates acute fear but not behavioral and physiological components of anxious temperament. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 2067-2074.

Grillon, C.G. (2002). Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: Aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 958-975.

Class 2 Required Readings

March 5 , Class 3: HPA axis and neuroplasticity: Depression and anxiety (recommended readings)

Recommended DVD:
McPhee, L., Donnelly, L., & Geller, P. (Producers). (2008). Depression: Out of the shadows [Motion Picture]. (Available from PBS).

Neuroplasticity, stress, and psychopathology :

Brunoni, A.R., Lopes, M., & Fregni, F. (2008). A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies on major depression and BDNF levels: Implications for the role of neuroplasticity in depression. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 11, 1169-1180.

Gould, E. & Tanapat, P. (1999). Stress and hippocampal neurogenesis. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1472-1479.

McEwen, B.S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171-179.

McEwen, B.S. (2000). Effects of adverse experience for brain structure and function. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 721-731.

Bradley, R.G., Binder, E.B., Epstein, M.P., Tang, Y., Nair, H.P., Liu, W., Gillespie, C.F., Berg, T., Evces, M., Newport, D.J., Stowe, Z.N., Heim, C.M., Nemeroff, C.B., Schwartz, A., Cubells, J.F., & Ressler, K.J. (2008). Influence of child abuse on adult depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 190-200.

Heim, C., Plotsky, P.M., & Nemeroff, C.B. (2004). Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 641-648.

Stress Physiology, Learning, and Neuroplasticity:

Champagne, D.L., Bagot, R.C., van Hasselt, F., Ramakers, G., Meaney, M.J., de Kloet, E.R., Joëls, M., & Krugers, H. (2008). Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: Evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 6037-6045.

Joëls, M. & Krugers, H.J. (2007). LTP after stress: Up or down? Neural Plasticity.

de Kloet, E.R., Oitzl, M.S., & Joëls, M. (1999). Stress and cognition: Are corticosteroids good or bad guys? TINS, 22, 422-426.

Roozendaal, B., Okuda, S., de Quervain, D.J.-F., & McGaugh, J.L. (2006). Glucocorticoids interact with emotion-induced noradrenergic activation in influencing different memory functions. Neuroscience, 138, 901-910.

Okuda, S., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J.L. (2004). Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 853-858.

Abercrombie, H.C., Speck, N.S., & Monticelli, R.M. (2006). Endogenous cortisol levels are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196.

HPA - important findings:

de Kloet, E.R., Joëls, M., & Holsboer, F. (2005). Stress and the brain: From adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 463-475.

Raison, C.L. & Miller, A.H. (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1554-65.

Levine, S. (2000). Influence of psychological variables on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 405, 149-160.

Dickerson, S.S. & Kemeny, M.E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355-391.

Sapolsky, R.M., Krey, L.C., & McEwen, B.S. (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284-301.

Sapolsky, R.M., Meaney, M.J., & McEwen, B.S. (1985). The development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the rat limbic brain: III. Negative feedback regulation. Brain Research, 350, 169-173.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 925-935.

HPA dysregulation in depression:

Abercrombie, H.C. (2009). Depression and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal alterations. In R.E. Ingram (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Depression.

Gold PW, Chrousos GP.Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs low CRH/NE states.
Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(3):254-75.

Krishnan, V. & Nestler, E.J. (2008). The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455, 894-902.

Holsboer, F. (2001). Stress, hypercortisolism and corticosteroid receptors in depression: Implications for therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 62, 77-91.

Gold, P.W., Drevets, W.C., & Charney, D.S. (2002). New insights into the role of cortisol and the glucocorticoid receptor in severe depression. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 381-385.

de Kloet, E.R., DeRijk, R.H., & Meijer, O.C. (2007). Therapy insight: Is there an imbalanced response of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in depression? Nature Clinical Practice: Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3, 168-179.

Parker, K.J., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2003). Neuroendocrine aspects of hypercortisolism in depression. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 60-66.

Heim, C., Mletzko, T., Purselle, D., Musselman, D.L., & Nemeroff, C.B. (2008). The dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing factor test in men with major depression: Role of childhood trauma. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 398-405.

Cortisol negative feedback deficit in depression:

Young, E.A., Haskett, R.F., Murphy-Weinberg, V., Watson, S.J., & Akil, H. (1991). Loss of glucocorticoid fast feedback in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 693-699.

Ising, M., Kunzel, H.E., Binder, E.B., Nickel, T., Modell, S., & Holsboer, F. (2005). The combined dexamethasone/CRH test as a potential surrogate marker in depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 29, 1085-1093.

Cortisol signaling in the brain :

The following article is highly recommended:
Raison, C.L. & Miller, A.H. (2003). When not enough is too much: The role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1554-65.

Pariante, C.M. & Lightman, S.L. (2008). The HPA axis in major depression: Classical theories and new developments. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 464-468.

Pariante, C.M. (2003). Depression, stress and the adrenal axis. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 15, 811-812.

Pariante, C.M., & Miller, A.H. (2002). Glucocorticoid receptors in major depression: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 391-404.

Young, E.A., Lopez, J.F., Murphy-Weinberg, V., Watson, S. J., & Akil, H. (2003). Mineralocorticoid receptor function in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 24-28.

Enhanced cortisol positive feedback:

Gold, P.W., Drevets, W.C., & Charney, D.S. (2002). New insights into the role of cortisol and the glucocorticoid receptor in severe depression. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 381-385.

Reul, J., & Holsboer, F. (2002). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors 1 and 2 anxiety and depression. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 2, 23-33.

Drevets, W.C., Price, J.L., Bardgett, M.E., Reich, T., Todd, R.D., & Raichle, M.E. (2002). Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in depression: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 71, 431-447.

Early environmental manipulations cause life-long changes in stress sensitivity:

Weaver, I.C.G., Diorio, J., Seckl, J.R., Szyf, M., & Meaney, M.J. (2004). Early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: Characterization of intracellular mediators and potential genomic target sites. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1024, 182-212.

Kaffman, A. & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 224-244.

Lyons DM, Parker KJ.
Stress inoculation-induced indications of resilience in monkeys.
J Trauma Stress. 2007 Aug;20(4):423-33. Review.
PMID: 17721972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Sundlass, K., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2006). Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates. PNAS, 103, 3000-3005.

Hippocampal volume reduction:

Sapolsky, R.M. (2000). The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: A primer on neuron death. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 755-765.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2002). Chickens, eggs, and hippocampal atrophy. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1111-1113.

MacQueen, G.M., Campbell, S., McEwen, B.S., MacDonald, K., Amano, S., Joffe, R.T., Nahmias, C., & Young, L.T. (2003). Course of illness, hippocampal function, and hippocampal volume in major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1000, 1387-1392.

Vythilingam, M., Vermetten, E., Anderson, G.M., Luckenbaugh, D., Anderson, E.R., Snow, J., Staib, L.H., Charney, D.S., & Bremner, J.D. (2004). Hippocampal volume, memory, and cortisol status in major depressive disorder: Effects of treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 101-112.

Sheline, Y.I. (2003). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorder effects on the brain. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 338-352.

Rusch, B.D., Abercrombie, H.C., Oakes, T.R., Schaefer, S.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2001). Hippocampal morphometry in depressed patients and control subjects: Relations to anxiety symptoms. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 960-964.

Gilbertson, M.W., Shenton, N.E., Cizewski, A., Kasai, K., Lasko, N.B., Orr, S.P., & Pitman, R.K. (2002). Smaller hippocampal volume predicts pathologic vulnerability to psychological trauma. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1242-1247.

Lyons, D.M., Parker, K.J., Zeiter, J.M., Buckmaster, C.L., & Schatzberg, A.F. (2007). Preliminary evidence that hippocampal volumes in monkeys predict stress levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 1171-1174.

Vythilingam, M., Heim, C., Newport, J., Miller, A.H., Anderson, E., Bronen, R., Brummer, M., Staib, L., Vermetten, E., Charney, D.S., Nemeroff, C.B., & Bremner, J.D. (2002). Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 2072-2080.

Cognition, stress, and psychopathology:

Gorwood, P., Corruble, E., Falissard, B., & Goodwin, G.M. (2008). Toxic effects of depression on brain function: Impairment of delayed recall and the cumulative length of depressive disorder in a large sample of depressed outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165 , 731-739.

Erickson, K., Drevets, W., & Schulkin, J. (2003). Glucocorticoid regulation of diverse cognitive functions in normal and pathological emotional states. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 233-246.

HPA dysregulation in anxiety:

Yehuda R, LeDoux J.
Response variation following trauma: a translational neuroscience approach to understanding PTSD.
Neuron. 2007 Oct 4;56(1):19-32. Review.
PMID: 17920012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Yehuda R.
Advances in understanding neuroendocrine alterations in PTSD and their
therapeutic implications.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul;1071:137-66. Review.
PMID: 16891568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Abelson JL, Khan S, Liberzon I, Young EA.
HPA axis activity in patients with panic disorder: review and synthesis of four studies.
Depress Anxiety. 2007;24(1):66-76. Review.
PMID: 16845643 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Acute cortisol and heartrate response to trauma may predict the development of PTSD symptoms:

Yehuda R, McFarlane AC, Shalev AY.
Predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder from the acute response to a traumatic event.
Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Dec 15;44(12):1305-13. Review.
PMID: 9861473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

McFarlane AC, Atchison M, Yehuda R.
The acute stress response following motor vehicle accidents and its relation to PTSD.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Jun 21;821:437-41. No abstract available.
PMID: 9238224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Zatzick DF, Russo J, Pitman RK, Rivara F, Jurkovich G, Roy-Byrne P.
Reevaluating the association between emergency department heart rate and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: A public health approach.
Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jan 1;57(1):91-5.
PMID: 15607305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Class 3 Required Readings

March 12, Class 4: Current topics in treatment of depression and anxiety (recommended readings)

An often cited paper on guidelines for treatment research in Psychiatry:
Kandel, E.R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.

Functional reversal of life-long changes in stress sensitivity:

Francis, D.D., Diorio, J., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (2002). Environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal separation on stress reactivity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 7840-7843.

Bredy, T.W., Humpartzoomian, R.A., Cain, D.P., & Meaney, M.J. (2003). Partial reversal of the effect of maternal care on cognitive function through environmental enrichment. Neuroscience, 118, 571-576.

Kaffman, A. & Meaney, M.J. (2007). Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 224-244.

Stress Physiology, Learning, and Neuroplasticity:

Bremner, J.D., Vythilingam, M., Vermetten, E., Vaccarino, V., & Charney, D.S. (2004). Deficits in hippocampal and anterior cingulate functioning during verbal declarative memory encoding in midlife major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 637-645.

Champagne, D.L., Bagot, R.C., van Hasselt, F., Ramakers, G., Meaney, M.J., de Kloet, E.R., Joëls, M., & Krugers, H. (2008). Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: Evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 6037-6045.

Joëls, M. & Krugers, H.J. (2007). LTP after stress: Up or down? Neural Plasticity.

de Kloet, E.R., Oitzl, M.S., & Joëls, M. (1999). Stress and cognition: Are corticosteroids good or bad guys? TINS, 22, 422-426.

Roozendaal, B., Okuda, S., de Quervain, D.J.-F., & McGaugh, J.L. (2006). Glucocorticoids interact with emotion-induced noradrenergic activation in influencing different memory functions. Neuroscience, 138, 901-910.

Okuda, S., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J.L. (2004). Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 853-858.

Abercrombie, H.C., Speck, N.S., & Monticelli, R.M. (2006). Endogenous cortisol levels are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 187-196.

ANXIETY:

Kindt, M., Soeter, M., & Vervliet, B. (2009). Beyond extinction: Erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear. Nature Neuroscience.

Kindt, M., Soeter, M., & Vervliet, B. (2009). Beyond extinction: Erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear [Supplementary Figures and Legends]. Nature Neuroscience.

Han, J.H., Kushner, S.A., Yiu, A.P., Hsiang, H.L., Buch, T., Waisman, A., Bontempi, B., Neve, R.L., Frankland, P.W., & Josselyn, S.A. (2009). Selective erasure of a fear memory. Science, 323, 1492-1496.

Use of adrenergic agents in prevention and/or treatment of PTSD:

Brunet A, Orr SP, Tremblay J, Robertson K, Nader K, Pitman RK.
Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder.
J Psychiatr Res. 2008 May;42(6):503-6.

Raskind, M.A., Peskind, E.R., Hoff, D.J., Hart, K.L., Holmes, H.A., Warren, D., Shofer, J., O'Connell, J., Taylor, F., Gross, C., Rohde, K., & McFall, M.E. (2006). A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry.

Taylor, F.B., Lowe, K., Thompson, C., McFall, M.M., Peskind, E.R., Kanter, E.D., Allison, N., Williams, J., Martin, P., & Raskind, M.A. (2006). Daytime prazosin reduces psychological distress to trauma specific cues in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 577-581.

Pitman, R.K., Sanders, K.M., Zusman, R.M., Healy, A.R., Cheema, F., Lasko, N.B., Cahill, L., & Orr, S.P. (2002). Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 189-142.

Orr, S.P., Milad, M.R., Metzger, L.J., Lasko, N.B., Gilbertson, M.W., & Pitman, R.K. (2006). Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biological Psychology, 73, 262-271.

Pitman, R.K. & Delahanty, D.L. (2005). Conceptually driven pharmacologic approaches to acute trauma. CNS Spectrums, 10, 99-106.

Extinction of fear learning:

Myers, K.M., & Davis, M. (2002). Behavioral and neural analysis of extinction. Neuron, 36, 567-584.

Milad, M.R., & Quirk, G.J. (2002). Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature, 420, 70-74.

D-cycloserine enhancement of exposure therapy:

Davis, M., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B.O., & Richardson, R. (2006). Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction: Translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 369-375.

Davis, M., Myers, K.M., Ressler, K.J., & Rothbaum, B.O. (2005). Facilitation of extinction of conditioned fear by D-cycloserine: Implications for psychotherapy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 214-219.

Rothbaum, B.O. (2008). Critical parameters for D-cycloserine enhancement of cognitive-behaviorial therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 293-296.

Shim, S.S., Hammonds, M.D., & Vrabel, M.M. (2008). D-cycloserine augmentation for behavioral therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1050.

Kalisch, R., Holt, B., Petrovic, P., De Martino, B., Klöppel, S., Büchel, C., & Dolan, R.J. (2009). The NMDA agonist d-cycloserine facilitates fear memory consolidation in humans. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 187-196.

Wilhelm, S., Buhlmann, U., Tolin, D.F., Meunier, S.A., Pearlson, G.D., Reese, H.E., Cannistraro, P., Jenike, M.A., & Rauch, S.L. (2008). Augmentation of behavior therapy with d-cycloserine for obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 335-341.

Kushner, M.G., Kim, S.W., Donahue, C., Thuras, P., Adson, D., Kotlyar, M., McCabe, J., Peterson, J., & Foa, E.B. (2007). D-cycloserine augmented exposure therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 835-838.

Guastella, A.J., Dadds, M.R., Lovibond, P.F., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on exposure therapy for spider fear. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 466-471.

Guastella, A.J., Lovibond, P.F., Dadds, M.R., Mitchell, P., & Richardson, R. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of d-cycloserine on extinction and fear conditioning in humans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 663-672.

Hofmann, S.G., Meuret, A.E., Smits, J.A.J., Simon, N.M., Pollack, M.H., Eisenmenger, K., Shiekh, M., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation of exposure therapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 298-304.

Hofmann, S.G., Pollack, M.H., & Otto, M.W. (2006). Augmentation treatment of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders with D-cycloserine. CNS Drug Reviews, 12, 208-217.

Ressler, K.J., Rothbaum, B.O., Tannenbaum, L., Anderson, P., Graap, K., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., & Davis, M. (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1136-1144.

Benzodiazapines interfere with effectiveness of exposure therapy:

Wilhelm, F.H. & Roth, W.T. (1997). Acute and delayed effects of alprazolam on flight phobics during exposure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 831-841.

SSRIs and the hippocampus in PTSD:

Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S., & Bremner, J.D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 693-702.

DEPRESSION:

Southwick SM, Vythilingam M, Charney DS.
The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for
prevention and treatment.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1:255-91. Review.
PMID: 17716089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mayberg, H.S. (2007). Defining the neural circuitry of depression: Toward a new nosology with therapeutic implications. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 729-730.

MacQueen, G.M., Yucel, K., Taylor, V.H., Macdonald, K., & Joffe, R. (2008). Posterior hippocampal volumes are associated with remission rates in pateints with major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 880-883.

Binneman, B., Feltner, D., Kolluri, S., Shi, Y., Qiu, R., & Stiger, T. (2008). A 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CP-316,311 (a selective CRH1 antagonist) in the treatment of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 617-620.

Nemeroff, C.B., Heim, C.M., Thase, M.E., Klein, D.N., Rush, A.J., Schatzberg, A.F., Ninan, P.T., McCullough, Jr., J.P., Weiss, P.M., Dunner, D.L, Rothbaum, B.O., Kornstein, S., Keitner, G., & Keller, M.B. (2003). Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 14293-14296.

Ressler, K.J. & Mayberg, H.S. (2007). Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: From the laboratory to the clinic. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 1116-1124.

Norman, T.R. & Burrows, G.D. (2007). Emerging treatments for major depression. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7, 203-213.

Effects of antidepressant medications on HPA, neurogenesis, & hippocampal volume:

Pittenger, C. & Duman, R.S. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: A convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews, 33, 88-109.

Mason, B.L. & Pariante, C.M. (2006). The effects of antidepressants on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Drug News & Perspectives, 19, 603-608.

Pariante, C.M., Thomas, S.A., Lovestone, S., Makoff, A., & Kerwin, R.W. (2004). Do antidepressants regulate how cortisol affects the brain? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 423-447.

Vermetten, E., Vythilingam, M., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S., & Bremner, J.D. (2003). Long-term treatment with paroxetine increases verbal declarative memory and hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 693-702.

Sapolsky, R.M. (2004). Is impaired neurogenesis relevant to the affective symptoms of depression? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 137-139.

Duman, R.S. (2004). Depression: A case of neuronal life and death? Biological Psychiatry, 56, 140-145.

Prediction of treatment response using biological data:

Young, E.A., Altemus, M., Lopez, J.F., Kocsis, J.H., Schatzberg, A.F., deBattista, C., & Zubieta, J.-K. (2004). HPA axis activation in major depression and response to fluoxetine: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 1198-1204.

Siegle, G.J., Carter, C.S., & Thase, M.E. (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735-738.

Davidson, R.J., Irwin, W., Anderle, M.J., & Kalin, N.H. (2003). The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. American Journal of Psychiatry,160, 64-75.

Pizzagalli, D., Pascual-Marqui, R.D., Nitschke, J.B., Oakes, T.R., Larson, C.L., Abercrombie, H.C., Schaefer, S.M., Koger, J.V., Benca, R.M., & Davidson, R.J. (2001). Anterior cingulate activity as a predictor of degree of treatment response in major depression: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 405-415.

Mayberg, H.S., Brannan, S.K., Mahurin, R.K., Jerabek, P.A., Brickman, J.S., Tekell, J.L., Silva, J.A., McGinnis, S., Glass, T.G., Martin, C.C., & Fox, P.T. (1997). Cingulate function in depression: A potential predictor of treatment response. NeuroReport, 8, 1057-1061.

Electromagnetic brain stimulation techniques (rTMS, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, ECT):

Mayberg, H.S., Lozano, A.M., Voon, V., McNeely, H.E., Seminowicz, D., Hamani, C., Schwalb, J.M., & Kennedy, S.H. (2005). Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron, 45, 651-660.

Nemeroff, C.B., Mayberg, H.S., Krahl, S.E., McNamara, J., Frazer, A., Henry, T.R., George, M.S., Charney, D.S., & Brannan, S.K. (2006). VNS therapy in treatment-resistant depression: Clinical evidence and putative neurobiological mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 1345-1355.

George, M.S. (2003). Stimulating the brain. Scientific American, 289, 66-73.

George, M.S., Lisanby, S.H., & Sackeim, H.A. (1999). Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Applications in neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 300-311.

Klein, E., Kreinin, I., Chistyakov, A., Koren, D., Mecz, L., Marmur, S., Ben-Shachar, D., & Feinsod, M. (1999). Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: A double-blind controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 315-320.

Biological aspects of emotion regulation:

Urry, H.L., van Reekum, C.M., Johnstone, T., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Schaefer, H.S., Jackson, C.A., Frye, C.J., Greischar, L.L., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2006). Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 4415-4425.

Ochsner, K.N. & Gross, J.J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 242-249.

Ochsner, K., Bunge, S.A., Gross, J.J., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1215-1229.

Gross, J.J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281-291.

Jackson, D.C., Malmstadt, J.R., Larson, C.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2000). Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology, 37, 515-522.

Schaefer, S.M., Jackson, D.C., Davidson, R.J Aguirre, G.K., Kimberg, D.Y., & Thompson-Schill, S.L. (2002). Modulation of amygdalar activity by the conscious regulation of negative emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 913-921.

Brown, L.L., Tomarken, A.J., Orth, D.N., Loosen, P.T., Kalin, N.H., & Davidson, R.J. (1996). Individual differences in repressive-defensiveness predict basal salivary cortisol levels. Journal of Personality of Social Psychology, 70, 362-371.

Combination medication & psychotherapy treatment:

Keller, M.B., McCullough, J.P., Klein, D.N., Arnow, B., Dunner, D.L., Gelenberg, A.J., Markowitz, J.C., Nemeroff, C.B., Russell, J.M., Thase, M.E., Trivedi, M.H., & Zajecka, J. (2000). A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342(20), 1462-1470.

Arnow, B.A. & Constantino, M.J. (2003). Effectiveness of psychotherapy and combination treatment for chronic depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 893-905.

Manipulation of CRH / HPA axis in treatment or prevention of depression or PTSD:

Schatzberg, A.F. & Lindley, S. (2008). Glucocorticoid antagonists in neuropsychotic disorders. European Journal of Pharmacology, 583, 358-364.

de Quervain DJ, Margraf J.
Glucocorticoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias: A novel therapeutic approach.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 7;583(2-3):365-71. Epub 2008 Jan 24. Review.
PMID: 18275950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Holsboer F, Ising M.
Central CRH system in depression and anxiety--evidence from clinical studies with CRH1 receptor antagonists.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Apr 7;583(2-3):350-7. Epub 2008 Jan 24. Review.
PMID: 18272149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ising M, Holsboer F.
CRH-sub-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of depression and anxiety.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Dec;15(6):519-28. Review.
PMID: 18179304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

de Quervain DJ.
Glucocorticoid-induced reduction of traumatic memories: implications for the treatment of PTSD.
Prog Brain Res. 2008;167:239-47. Review.
PMID: 18037019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nemeroff CB.
New directions in the development of antidepressants: the interface of neurobiology and psychiatry.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002 Jun;17 Suppl 1:S13-6. Review.

Reus, V.I. & Wolkowitz, O.M. (2001). Antiglucocorticoid drugs in the treatment of depression. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 10, 1789-1796.

Wolkowitz, O.M. & Reus, V.I. (2003). Neurotransmitters, neurosteroids, and neurotrophins: New models of the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 4, 98-102.

Belanoff, J.K., Rothschild, A.J., Cassidy, F., DeBattista, C., Baulieu E.-E., Schold, C., & Schatzberg A.F. (2002). An open label trial of C-1073 (mifepristone) for psychotic major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 386-392.

Holsboer, F. (2003). High-quality antidepressant discovery by understanding stress hormone physiology. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1007, 394-404.

Summary: Enhacement of therapeutic learning through integration of medication and psychotherapy:

Kandel, E.R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457-469.

Garakani, A., Mathew, S.J., & Charney, D.S. (2006). Neurobiology of anxiety disorders and implications for treatment. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73, 941-949.

Dębiec, J. & Altemus, M. (2006). Toward a new treatment for traumatic memories. Cerebrum, Sept., 2-11.

Krystal, J.H. (Ed.). (2006). Biological Psychiatry (Vol. 60, Issue 4). New York: Plenum. [Special Issue]

Simpson, H.B., Foa, E.B., Liebowitz, M.R., Ledley, D.R., Huppert, J.D., Cahill, S., Vermes, D., Schmidt, A.B., Hembree, E., Franklin, M., Campeas, R., Hahn, C.-G., & Petkova, E. (2008). A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 621-630.

Class 4 Required Readings

March 19, Class 5: Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Giulio Tononi and Fabio Ferrarelli) (recommended readings)

Ross, C.A., Margolis, R.L., Reading, S.A.J., Pletnikov, M., & Coyle, J.T. (2006). Neurobiology of schizophrenia. Neuron, 52, 139-153.

Braff, D.L., Freedman, R., Schork, N.J., & Gottesman, I.I. (2007). Deconstructing schizophrenia: An overview of the use of endophenotypes in order to understand a complex disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 21-32.

Rasetti, R., Mattay, V.S., Wiedholz, L.M., Kolachana, B.S., Hariri, A.R., Callicott, J.H., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Weinberger, D.R. (2009). Evidence that altered amygdala activity in schizophrenia is related to clinical state and not genetic risk. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 216-225.

Tregellas, J. (2009). Connecting brain structure and function in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 134-136.

Lisman, J.E., Coyle, J.T., Green, R.W., Javitt, D.C., Benes, F.M., Heckers, S., & Grace, A.A. (2008). Circuit-based framework for understanding neurotransmitter and risk gene interactions in schizophrenia. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 234-242.

Allen, P., Larøi, F., McGuire, P.K., & Aleman, A. (2008). The hallucinating brain: A review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of hallucinations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 175-191.

Sei, Y., Ren-Patterson, R., Li, Z., Tunbridge, E.M., Egan, M.F., Kolachana, B.S., & Weinberger, D.R. (2007). Neuregulin1-induced cell migration is impaired in schizophrenia: Association with neureglin1 and catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 946-957.

Carter, C.S. (2007). Some rewarding insights into the cognitive and neurobiological basis of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 709-710.

Good, short editorial describing the difficulty of dissecting the molecular underpinnings of schizophrenia:
Friedman, J.I. & Davis, K.L. (2006). Special Issue: Molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 527-529.

Theoretical models of schizohrenia incorporating recent findings (genetic, imaging, neurotransmitter, etc):
Stephan, K.E., Baldeweg, T., & Friston, K.J. (2006). Synaptic plasticity and dysconnection in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 929-939.

Recent journal issues with a focus on the neurobiology of schizophrenia:

Focus on the use of endophenotypes in schizophrenia, and recent findings:
Schizophrenia Bulletin (2007) v. 33(1), pp. 19-104

Reviews of neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia (dopamine, glutamate, gaba, serotonin, etc.):
International Review of Neurobiology (2007) v. 78, pp.1-422

Class 5 Required Readings

March 26, Class 6: Molecular psychiatry (Jerry Yin: guest lecturer) (recommended readings)

Ooi, L. & Wood, I.C. (2008). Regulation of gene expression in the nervous system. Biochemical Journal, 414, 327-341.

Landis, S. & Insel, T.R. (2008). The "neuro" in neurogenetics. Science, 322, 821.

Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T.E. (2006). Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: Joining forces with neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 583-590.

Kendler, K.S. (2006). Reflections on the relationship between psychiatry genetics and psychiatric nosology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1138-1146.

Hariri, A.R. & Holmes, A. (2006). Genetics of emotional regulation: The role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 182-191.

Class 6 Required Readings

April 2, Class 7: Developmental psychopathology (recommended readings)

Anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence:

Forbes, E.E. & Dahl, R.E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17, 827-850.

Forbes, E.E., Hariri, A.R., Martin, S.L., Silk, J.S., Moyles, D.L., Fisher, P.M., Brown, S.M., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Axelson, D.A., & Dahl, R.E. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 64-73.

Thomas, K.M., Drevets, W.C., Dahl, R.E., Ryan, N.D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C.H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P.J., & Casey, B.J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1057-1063.

Ernst, M., Pine, D.S., & Hardin, M. (2006). Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychological Medicine, 36, 299-312.

McClure, E.B., Monk, C.S., Nelson, E.E., Parrish, J.M., Adler, A., Blair, R.J.R., Fromm, S., Charney, D.S., Leibenluft, E., Ernst, M., & Pine, D.S. (2007). Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 97-106.

Monk, C.S., Telzer, E.H., Mogg, K., Bradley, B.P., Mai, X., Louro, H.M.C., Chen, G., McClure-Tone, E.B., Ernst, M., & Pine, D.S. (2008). Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 568-576.

Lau, J.Y.F., Goldman, D., Buzas, B., Fromm, S.J., Guyer, A.E., Hodgkinson, C., Monk, C.S., Nelson, E.E., Shen, P.-H., Pine, D.S., & Ernst, M. (2009). Amygdala function and 5-HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety and major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 349-355.

McClure, E.B., Pope, K., Hoberman, A.J., Pine, D.S., & Leibenluft, E. (2003). Facial expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1172-1174.

Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Doughan, B., & Slattery, M.J. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443-466.

Schwartz, C.E., Wright, C.I., Shin, L.M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S.L. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants "grown up": Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 1952-1953.
Supporting Online Material for C. Schwartz et al., 10.1126/science.1083703

Attention deficit disorder:

Scheres, A., Milham, M.P., Knutson, B., & Castellanos, F.X. (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720-724.

Krause, K., Dresel, S.H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 27, 605-613.

Wilens, T.E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T.J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113-131.

Mostofsky, S.H., Cooper, K.L., Kates, W.R., Denckla, M.B., & Kaufman, W.E. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785-794.

Autism:

Dalton, K.M., Nacewicz, B.M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H.S., Gernsbacher, M.A., Goldsmith, H.H., Alexander, A.L., & Davidson, R.J. (2005). Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519-526.

Rutter, M. (2005). Aetiology of autism: Findings and questions. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 231-238.

Pregnancy and infancy:

Coe, C.L., Kramer, M., Czeh, B., Gould, E., Reeves, A.J., Kirschbaum, C., & Fuchs, E. (2003). Prenatal stress diminishes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of juvenile rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1025-1034.

DiPietro, J.A., Novak, M.F.S.X., Costigan, K.A., Atella, L.D., Reusing, S.P. (2006). Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy in relation to child development at age two. Child Development, 77, 573–587.

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2004). Prospective investigation of stress inoculation in young monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 933-941.

Parker, K.J., Buckmaster, C.L., Sundlass, K., Schatzberg, A.F., & Lyons, D.M. (2006). Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates. PNAS, 103, 3000-3005.

Pollak, S.D. (2008). Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions: Illustrations from the study of maltreated children. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 370-375.

Fries, A.B., Ziegler, T.E., Kurian, J.R., Jacoris, S., & Pollak, S.D. (2005). Early experience in humans is associated with changes in neuropeptides critical for regulating social behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 17237-17240.

Pollak, S.D. & Kistler, D.J. (2002). Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9072-9076.

Pollak, S.D. & Sinha, P. (2002). Effects of early experience in children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 38, 784-791.

Buss, K.A., Malmstadt Schumacher, J.R., Dolski, I., Kalin, N.H., Goldsmith, H.H., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 11-20.

Class 7 Required Readings

April 9, Class 8: Synthesis and review (recommended readings)

Miresco, M.J. & Kirmayer, L.J. (2006). The persistence of mind-brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 913-918.

Class 8 Required Reading


Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Fall 2003

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Fall 2004

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Spring 2006

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Spring 2007

Biology of Psychopathology Seminar syllabus, Spring 2008

Reading Assignments
Dates:

February 19, Class 1:
Psychopathology, adaption to the environment, and neuroplasticity

February 26, Class 2:
Functional neuroanatomy: Depression and anxiety

March 5, Class 3:
HPA axis and neuroplasticity: Depression and anxiety

March 12, Class 4:
Current topics in treatment of depression and anxiety

March 19, Class 5:
Biological perspectives on schizophrenia (Giulio Tononi and Fabio Ferrarelli: guest lecturers)

March 26, Class 6:
Molecular psychiatry (Jerry Yin: guest lecturer)

April 2 , Class 7:
Developmental psychopathology

April 9, Class 8:
Synthesis and review


2003
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